Write significance of the following: (i) intercropping (ii) organic farming (iii) Mixed cropping

Q- Write significance of the following:

(i) Intercropping

(ii) Organic farming

(iii) Mixed cropping

Answer- (i) Intercropping is the growing of two or more crops simultaneously in the same field or piece of land in definite row pattern. In this method cropping a few rows of one crop grown alternatively with a few rows of a second crop. For example: soya bean + maize, soya bean + bajra (finger millet) or soya bean + lobia (cow pea).

The row pattern in this cropping is 1 : 1, 1 : 2 or 1 : 3. 

There are various advantages of intercropping. Some of them are as follows:

1. Intercropping ensures maximum utilization of nutrients.

2. Both crops can be give better returns. 

3. It also checks spreading of pests and diseases to all plants.

(ii) Organic farming is a kind of farming in which only organic matter is used as fertilizer and manure. In organic farming the dead and decay plants and animals are used to form the manure. The manure formed by these organic components is very beneficial for crop and increases the fertility of the soil.

The main benefit of organic farming is that the crop produced through organic farming method is very healthy or nutritious as compared to the crop grown using chemical or synthetic fertilizers. 

(iii) Mixed cropping: Mixed cropping is the process of growing of two or more types of crops together in the same field is called as mixed cropping. It is also a means of restoration of fertility of the soil as the products and waste material from one crop helps in growth of the other one.

Some of the main principles of mixed cropping are as follows:

1. Economy of space.

2. Insurance against failure.

3. Mixed cropping and rotation of crops.

4. Utilisation of manure and water.

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