Discuss by the colonial government in India brought in the following laws In each case explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists

Q- Discuss by the colonial government in India bought in the following laws. In each case, explain how the law changed the lives of pastoralists:

1. Waste land rules

2. Forest Act

3. Criminal Tribe Act

4. Grazing Tax


1. Waste land rules: 

Waste land rules were implemented to take control over the land which was not under cultivation. The surplus land could be cultivated or used for agriculture to increase the area under cultivation and also to increase the land revenue. 

This rule was responsible for the shrinkage of the pastureland which was earlier available.

2. Forest Act: 

This Act was passed by government to make people control on those forests which were rich in commercial crops or trees. Besides, these acts were also to utilise to collect the revenue from the pastoralists. 

Because of these acts the movements of pastoralists were severely restricted. Instead of planning their movements according to the season, the pastoralists now had to move according to the rules and through permission.

3. Criminal Tribe Act: 

Criminal Tribe Act was made to force the nomadic tribe to lead a settled life instead of moving from one place to another and follow or practice shifting cultivation. The colonial government main aim for this act was also to collect taxes from the criminal tribes. As they were not properly settled and government faced a lots of problem in collecting taxes from them.

4. Grazing tax: 

Grazing tax was imposed to increase earning of government and it added burden for tribes and other community people to pay a more tax. This tax was mainly imposed on pastoralists.

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