Pollution | Introduction, definition, types, causes

Pollution {Introduction}:

The sudden unwanted changes in environment that causes ill effect in nature are collectively called as Pollution. Pollution is also the rapid increase in unwanted pollutants in our environment.


What is pollution and its types?

Pollution is the addition of unwanted contaminants into the natural environment that results in adverse changes in the natural phenomenon as well as climatic condition of the Earth. Pollution decreases or affects the quality of land, air and water.

The main components that cause pollution are called as Pollutants. These are the substances that pollute our surroundings.


Pollutants are all the water material or contaminated substances that pollute land, water and air such as waste and garbage. These are harmful for our environment.


Pollution types:

Mainly pollution is of Four types and some other pollution are also there are some other types of pollutions but they are not must important that is why there are only four types of pollution.


What are the four main types of Pollution?

There are four main or major kinds of pollution. These are as follows:

1. Air Pollution

2. Land Pollution

3. Noise Pollution

4. Water Pollution


Some Other Non-important types of Pollution:

1. Light pollution: The Light pollution is a type of pollution that affects the natural processes as well as cycles that occur or held by nature. This is done by several factors such as light trespass, over-illumination as well as astronomical interference.

2. Plastic pollution: Plastic pollution is the kind of pollution that is caused mainly due to throwing of plastic bags or material that is made up of plastic in natural surroundings. This can be water or land as we all knows that plastic pollutes our environment. It is just same as land and water pollution

3. Radioactive contamination: It is the kind of pollution that involves the presence of various kinds of contaminations that are radioactive in nature in the natural environment or eco-system. These types of radioactive contaminants are also called as radiological contaminants. These kinds of pollutants harms all eco-system that includes land, water and air as they are radioactive in nature

4. Electromagnetic pollution:  Electromagnetic pollution is caused due to the electromagnetic waves such as radio waves, e.t.c. Nowadays sue to increase in use of communication system and IT {Information Technology} this type of pollution is increased. It affects mainly the birds.

5. Thermal pollution: Thermal pollution is also a kind of pollution that causes due to change in thermal temperature of natural water bodies. This is not much popular as well as noticeable form of pollution as it is caused due to use of water as coolant in thermal power plants.

6. Visual pollution: Visual pollution is also a kind of pollution which changes the visual environment of human beings. This kind of pollution harms our environment a lot as it affects or harms the visual area of human beings through causing harmful changes in visual environment.

7. Littering: Littering can also be described as throwing of waste such as plastic, vegetables peel, decayed fruits e.t.c. anywhere in the environment. It is not much important type of pollution as it can be said as the combination of air, water and land pollution.



1. Air Pollution:

The increase in impurity, dust particles, harmful particles and harmful gases in atmosphere results in air pollution. It harms our nature and environment a lot and also harms human body in a large scale. Air pollution is caused due to the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Some of the harmful gases that causes air pollution are: Carbon dioxide, Chloro floro carbon, Sulfur dioxide, Nitrus dioxide e.t.c. .

Air pollution causes increase in global temperature or global warming that harms human and Eco-system a lot.

Air Pollution

Causes of Air Pollution:-

There are several human activities that are included in causes of air pollution. Some of them are as follows:

1. Use of vehicles in a large number causes air pollution because vehicles burn fuel and releases harmful gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide e.t.c. .

2. Smoking and burning waste material such as garbage or leaf.

3. Due to set up of industries in a large scale and releasing of harmful gases in atmosphere makes it polluted.

4. Releasing of factories waste in air in a large quantity.

5. Usage of Air conditioners, refrigerators e.t..c. electronic items that contains CFCs or Chlorofluorocarbons.

6. Cutting down of trees in a large scale results in air pollution because plants are the only one who purifies the air as they consume carbon dioxide and release oxygen.

7. Burning of coal mines from decades cause a lot of smoke and harmful gases

8. Firing crackers in weddings and parties in a large scale all over the World.


Harmful Effects of Air Pollution:

1. Air pollution results in acid rain that harms a lot of buildings, statues and aquatic life.

2. It makes soil infertile or unfit for cultivation as it makes the soil acidic.

3. It results in diseases like Asthma, bronchial diseases e.t.c. .

4. Life span of human being is reduced due to impure air in atmosphere.

5. Eco system is getting destroyed due to air pollution as it harms both plants and animals.

6. Due to air pollution acid rain causes and makes water unfit for human consumption.

7. Air pollution results to global warming or increasing in our global temperature rapidly.

8. Due to air pollution a hole is created in ozone layer that protect us from harmful ultraviolet rays of sun but now UV rays directly falls on human and cause diseases like cancer e.t.c. .

9. Due to increase in temperature glaciers started melting and causes tsunami situation in seaport areas or coastal areas. 



2. Water Pollution:

The addition of unwanted harmful components in water that made it unfit for use is called water pollution. It mainly harms aquatic life in a large scale as well as animals who consume that water. Water pollution is caused due to various human activities such as throwing of plastics in any region or water bodies, leaving or discharging the industrial as well as factory residue in water bodies, cutting down of trees in a large scale e.t.c. Directly or indirectly humans beings are responsible for all the pollutions as all the pollutions are caused due to human activities.

Water pollution


Causes of Water Pollution:

There are several human activities that are included in causes of water pollution. Some of them are as follows:

1. Throwing of waste such as plastic in water bodies.

2. Washing of clothes in water bodies.

3. Releasing of factories and industries waste in water bodies.

4. Bathing animals in water bodies.

5. Acid rain causes water pollution.

6. Releasing of garbage and waste material in water body makes it polluted.


Harmful Effects of Water Pollution:-

1. It results in loss of aquatic life because they die due to lack of oxygen in water.

2. Water becomes unfit for human consumption or becomes waste.

3. It causes several diseases such as diarrhea e.t.c. .

4. Polluted water bodies spread bad smell in surrounding and make it polluted.

5. It causes diseases to person who consumes it.

6. Pollution of water results in drought condition.



3. Land Pollution:

The activities that harm cause are collectively called as land pollution. In it the land becomes unfit for cultivation due to edition of unwanted waste and chemicals in soil. The main reason behind Land pollution is human being because human throw plastic and garbage in land that does not decomposes and make the soil infertile and encourages Land Pollution.

Land Pollution


Causes of Land Pollution:-

There are several human activities that are included in causes of land pollution. Some of them are as follows:

1. Throwing of non-biodegradable waste on land or soil.

2. Usage of artificial or chemical fertilizers in soil in a excessive quantity makes it polluted and unfit for cultivation.

3. Acid rain also reduces fertility of soil and makes it acidic in nature that results in land become barren like deserts.

4. Throwing of waste anywhere in land results in land pollution.


Harmful Effects of Land Pollution:-

1. The land under cultivation or land that is best for cultivation is reducing day per day.

2. Several diseases caused due to waste collected in a particular region for a long time.

3. Animals eat plastic by mistake and died due to its consumption.

4. Due to land pollution most of the land is unfit for cultivation or agriculture.


4. Noise Pollution:

It is a kind of pollution that is caused due to the usage of loud speaker, DJs e.t.c. . This type of pollution had a huge amount to demerits. As it causes harm to old people and people who have disease of problem related to heart.

This kind of pollution can easily be controlled and main reason behind this pollution is human being who used loud speaker in weddings, parties, roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.

Causes of Noise Pollution:-

There are several human activities that are included in causes of Noise pollution. Some of them are as follows:

1. Mining activities cause both noise and air pollution and sometime it results in Earthquake situation.

2. Using DJs and Loud Speaker in loud volume or sound that harms ear drum.

3. Horns of vehicles in traffic create a lot of noise.

4. Advertising vehicles uses loud speakers and also use horns that create a lot of noise.

5. Sometimes it becomes very annoying for people when there is construction work going on in nearby area but this is not much important.

6. In some regions the adverting vehicles of political parties increases volume of their advertisement to compete volume of other political party this creates a lots of noise.


Harmful Effects of Noise Pollution:-

1. Noise pollution harms ear drum and sometime makes people deaf and loss of hearing.

2. It causes High blood pressure patients lots of problems and sometimes their Blood pressure increase.

3. Noise pollution attacks a lot to people who are sick or suffering from any disease.

4. Student cannot concentrate properly in their studies and get disturbed.

5. It causes headache and irritation.

6. People who have problem or disease related to heart sometimes get heart attack.


Pollution Control Measures:

Measures to Reduce Air Pollution:-

1. The chimneys of factories should be built very high so that smoke and polluted gases can be released at a high level.

2. We should stop deforestation.

3. Plant more and more trees 

4. We should use vehicles as less as possible.

5. Use CNG vehicles and e-vehicles.

6. We should use mask to protect us from diseases and polluted air.

7. Factories should setup electrostatic precipitator, scrubber e.t.c. .

8. Use cycle instead of motor vehicles.

9. We should not smoke and stop more and more people from smoking.

10. Do not burn waste material as it produce a lot harmful gases that affect our planet.

Measures to reduce Pollution


Measures that should be taken to reduce Water Pollution:-

1. We should not use artificial fertilizers.

2. Do not throw waste in water bodies.

3. Factories and Industries should not split out their residue or waste in water bodies.

4. We should not bath in water bodies and do not wash clothes in them.

5. We should use only natural fertilizers.

6. Government should put quarterly checkup of pH level of water bodies.

7. We should plant more and more trees.



Measures to be taken to reduce Land Pollution:-

1. Do not throw waste anywhere.

2. Use policy of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

3. We should use to bins one that only contain biodegradable waste and second will contain non-biodegradable waste.

4. Do not throw plastic items in soil.

5. Plant more and more trees.

Measures that should be taken to reduce Noise Pollution:-

1. Do not use horn too much in traffic jams.

2. Do not use loud speakers and DJ in loud volume.

3. Use loud speakers in low or medium volume.

4. Do not fire cracker in parties and weddings.

5. Government should ban use of loud speakers after 11 p.m.


Some Important or Essential practices that should be done to reduce Pollution are as follows:

1. Recycling

2. Waste minimisation

3. Reusing

4. Compost

5. Preventing

6. Use of some modern & technical pollution control devices that are as follows:

Devices to control Air pollution

(a) Thermal oxidizer

Dust collection systems

(a) Bag houses

(b) Cyclones

(c) Electrostatic precipitators


(a) Baffle spray scrubber

(b) Cyclonic spray scrubber

(c) Ejector venturi scrubber

(d) Mechanically aided scrubber

(e) Spray tower

(f) Wet scrubber

Industrial wastewater treatment

(a) API oil-water separators

(b) Bio-filters

(c) Dissolved air flotation (DAF)

(d) Powdered activated carbon treatment

(e) Ultra-filtration

Sewage treatment

(a) Sedimentation (Primary treatment)

(b) Activated sludge bio-treaters (Secondary treatment: also used for industrial wastewater)

(c) Aerated lagoons

(d) Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff)

Vapor recovery systems



So at last I would like to give you all a message that is “Save water, Save life, Save planet”.


What is your opinion on this serious topic tell in comment box below??

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